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Introduction 24m. Reading 2 readings.

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Welcome to the Course 10m. Learner Support 10m. Video 3 videos.

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Video 2 videos. Reading Resource 20m. Reading 1 reading. Reading Resource 10m. Quiz 1 practice exercise. Quiz 1 30m. Show More. Quiz 2 30m. Prelude to Second Half 10m. Video 4 videos. Religion Under Attack Part I 29m. Additional Video Link 10m.

Quiz 3 30m. Darwin's Dangerous Idea Part I 21m. Reading Resources 10m. This being said, however, the one-child policy has undeniably resulted in unforeseen problems, many of which strongly indicate that tough times lie ahead.

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This unprecedented social experiment, it would seem, is not without its problems. First and foremost are the problems of female abortions and infanticide. After the one-child rule was implemented, many families clung to traditional preferences for a male heir among other cultural and economic motivations. As a result, abortions of females have become commonplace, as well as the killing of babies born post-partum.

To address the problem, some districts implemented a policy where, if the first born was a girl, the couple could have another child. But that was no guarantee the second child wouldn't also be a girl — creating another scenario in which an abortion might be seen as necessary.

Writing in her book, Unnatural Selection , Mara Hvistendahl notes that, in a natural state, there are boys born for every girls. In China, however, the male number has crept up to — and as high as in some districts. Over the course of several decades, this has resulted in millions upon millions of abortions — many of which have been instigated by women, either by the mother, or sometimes the mother-in-law.

Needless to say this has resulted in a society in which men greatly outnumber women — by a factor of 32 million.

Irregular Work Scheduling and Its Consequences | Economic Policy Institute

In alone there were more than 1. Clearly, couples are turning a blind eye to the law and are finding ways to both get the fetal screening done, as well as the abortion. This is not a good situation. Sometimes they are violent. She points to examples in history, such as fourth century B. Athens and China's Taiping Rebellion in midth century — both of which were the result of wide scale female infanticide. These eras were characterized by wide scale crime and violence.

In China, this practice has now resulted in a "surplus" of men who have little hope of marrying. Hvistendahl notes that these men tend to accumulate in the lower classes where the risk of violence is accentuated. Moreover, unmarried men who have low incomes tend to get restless — and in fact, areas with skewed gender balances tend to experience higher rates of crime.

And because it's harder to find a wife, men are having to literally buy or bid for them. When measured with a time-use question not shown in the table , those wishing to spend less time at paid work had significantly greater job-family conflict, while those who wanted more time at work had less conflict, but not significantly so.

The One-for-one Business Model: Avoiding Unintended Consequences

Regarding work stress, Table 8 shows results for underemployment, overemployment, and schedule control similar to those for work-family conflict in Table 7. Longer work hours is associated with more work stress from work.

Overemployment somewhat increases work stress, controlling for hours, while underemployment does not significantly reduce conflict. However, variable hours were found to be more prevalent in certain occupations and industries, and for certain worker characteristics.

An individual had a reduced probability of not being able to specify their workweek if he fit in one or more of the following categories: a union member, a government employee all levels, but particularly local public sector , has higher education, is white, is male, and is married.

Certain occupational classifications also were associated with reduced variability of work hours—professional, managerial, and administrative support. On the other hand, certain occupations increased weekly hours variation: sales and related occupations and sales representatives, services other than protective especially private household service and health service occupations , precision production, craft and repair especially fabricators , transportation and material moving, and farming.

Consequences of a hip fracture: a prospective study over 1 year.

Some of the workweek-stabilizing effect of unionism is traceable either to employment in government or the detailed industry distribution of union jobs. Half the higher probability of having unstable workweeks for nonwhites, and virtually all of the higher probability for women, is attributable to the distribution of their jobs across industries, thus, attributable largely to industry segregation in employment. Those in craft jobs also have reduced chances of working variable hours, but this is due to the concentration of such jobs in certain industries.


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The greater variability of hours for sales workers was to a large extent attributable to the more flexible scheduling associated with this major occupational classification. Indeed, generally, workers have a far greater likelihood of having a variable length of the workweek if they have both shorter than standard hours and access to flexible daily starting and ending times. The most salient finding was that having variable hours is strongly positively associated with usually working part-time, as opposed to working full-time.

Being part-time more than doubled the likelihood of having hours that vary weekly. Usually working full-time reduced the chances of having an unpredictable workweek by more than 40 percent. This suggests part-time hours are used to buffer stability for full-timers. A small but nontrivial proportion of the U.

About 4 percent of the usual part-time workforce 1. Unfortunately, part-timers are not asked the reasons why they are working full-time hours. Policy efforts to curb such hours of overemployment, such as a right to refuse extra work hours without retaliation, might go some way toward reducing underemployment of other part-time employees, were they in the same establishment.

Given the evidence presented here and in other, recent studies of the relationship between long, irregular or unpredictable work hours and work-family conflict, which policies might prove effective at mitigating the conflict? Other countries have taken steps to limit the unpredictability of work schedules and promote a legally protected ability of workers to adjust their work schedules? While access is particularly limited for hourly workers Sweet et al.

Versions of this right exist now in two other states—Montana protects an employee request for job sharing and Oregon protects a request for teleworking Kulow The law is also like the federal legislation in that there are at least eight factors for which the employer may deny the request, either completely or partially, as long as the denial of the request is put in writing. San Francisco employers must inform employees of their new rights and meet tight deadlines for responding formally to requests for flexible or predictable work schedules.

Any employee may request a new schedule to help care for a child, a parent age 65 or older, or any family member with a serious health condition. To be eligible, the employee must have worked for the employer for at least six months, must regularly work at least eight hours each week, and must work in San Francisco. The measures are intended to give hourly retail staffers more predictable schedules and priority access to extra hours of work available.